In 2020, the Association celebrated 100 years!

The Keystone Professional - 2020 Centennial Anniversary Issue

The Association was established when "An Act respecting the Engineering Profession" of March 27, 1920, created "The Association of Professional Engineers of the Province of Manitoba". To learn more about the history of the Association, read the Centennial Anniversary issue of our quarterly magazine The Keystone Professional.

[Spring 2020]

Centennial Video Series

Watch these videos to recognize and celebrate this important milestone for our professions as we highlight how 100 years of the life's work and community initiatives of engineers and geoscientists have made life work better in Manitoba.

A Timeline of Achievements - Celebrating 100 years

Manitoba Engineering and Geoscience Milestones

We have curated highlights through the last century of work by engineers and geoscientists that have made life work better in Manitoba. We hope you enjoy these interesting facts and tidbits about engineering and geoscience milestones, projects, people, and the Association from the last 100 years.

Preparing to Grow

[Canadian Pacific Railway]
Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)
Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) development begins.
[Transit Electrification]
Winnipeg Transit System
Electrification of Winnipeg Transit System
[Minnedosa River Plant]
Minnedosa River Plant
First hydroelectric generating station is established in Manitoba.
[Union Bank Tower]
Winnipeg Union Bank Tower
Western Canada gets its first skyscraper.
In November 1904, the Union Bank Tower opened and became Winnipeg's first skyscraper. The 10-storey building began construction in 1903 and at the time of its opening, the top floor of Union Bank was the second-highest in the British Empire, one metre below London's tallest building. It had the largest and fastest elevator in Western Canada and was the first building in Canada to introduce the modern concept of a general contractor to oversee construction.

The building was initially built for Union Bank and eventually became their head office. The Royal Bank of Canada took over the Union Bank in 1925 and operated out of the Union Bank Tower until 1992. At that time, the Royal Bank moved out of the building to a new location at James Avenue and Main Street. The building sat vacant for the next 18 years before being renovated, repurposed, and opened as the Paterson Globalfoods Institute of Red River College in 2013. It was designated as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1996.

The land on which the building sits was originally part of the bed of Brown's Creek, which ran from the Red River across Main Street approximately between the Union Bank Tower and City Hall. For a time, there existed a bridge on Main Street to aid in its crossing. It appears that buildings in the area witnessed sinking foundations and settling in the early 1890s as a result. The Union Bank Tower must have experienced the same problems, and in 1917 the bank spent $35,000 on 21 caissons down to bedrock to shore up the foundation.

However, this does not seem to be the final step in the stabilization of the foundation. In 1921, when the building immediately to the south was partially demolished and converted into an annex for the tower, additional work on the basement walls of the tower may have been completed. It has been suggested that when this conversion work was progressing, a horizontal section of the stone wall of the tower was removed and 400 to 600 specially designed jacks were placed in it. The entire building was then raised by these jacks, which were then cemented into place. No description of this work could be found in local newspaper accounts or in the columns of local or regional trade magazines or journals.

Notwithstanding the above issues, more recent engineering studies state that the tower is in excellent structural condition and has remained relatively stable for several decades.
[Pumping Station]
Winnipeg James Avenue Pumping Station and High-Pressure Fire Fighting System
Announced by the City Council in 1904 after a major downtown fire, and numerous protests by insurance underwriters, the high-pressure water system for fighting fires opens.
[Garry Telephone Exchange]
Winnipeg Telephone System
The first telephone exchange, Garry Telephone Exchange Building, is erected by Manitoba Government Telephones.
[St. Andrews Lock and Dam]
St. Andrews Lock and Dam
A prototype of a dam on the Seine River in France, the Lock is completed in 1910 having a profound impact on the city's growth as a supply hub to Northern Manitoba.
The dam has operated for more than 100 years helping to regulate the summer water levels of the Red River through the City of Winnipeg to aid navigation over Lister Rapids. The adjacent lock allows river traffic to operate between Winnipeg and points downstream, while the incorporated bridge provides a link for road traffic across the river. It had a profound effect on the City of Winnipeg in the early part of the last century by enabling river traffic to be loaded in Winnipeg rather than Selkirk and effectively enabled the City of Winnipeg to grow into a supply hub for Northern Manitoba, a role that formerly belonged to Selkirk.

The dam is a Caméré design from a prototype on the Seine River in France. This engineering system is comprised of three elements; a dam, a lock, and a bridge. The lock was completed 1910, the bridge in 1913, and a bascule lift was added later to accommodate tall ships. The fixed structure of the bridge is comprised of a combination of concrete/stonework piers and steel trusses. The design included frames from the piers which contained curtains of wooden laths that could be rolled up and down.

It is the only structure of its kind in North America and one of only four of its kind in the world. At 240 metres long, it is also the largest dam of this type ever built. In 1990 it was designated as a national historical site due to the uniqueness of its engineering design.
[Pointe du Bois]
Pointe du Bois
First hydroelectric generating station on the Winnipeg River is built by the City.
[Railway Shops]
Transcona Canadian National Railway Shops
Transcona Canadian National Railway Shops open.
Manitoba Rolling Mills
Manitoba Rolling Mills in Selkirk (Steel town)
[Parrish & Heinbecker (P&H) grain elevator]
Transcona Parrish & Heinbecker (P&H) grain elevator
Transcona Parrish and Heinbecker (P&H) grain elevator foundation failure and restoration.
[Electric Street Cars]
Electric Street Cars
Electric street cars are introduced to St. Vital.
[Chief Engineer W.G. Chace]
Shoal Lake to Winnipeg Aqueduct
Construction of the 135-km-long Shoal Lake Aqueduct begins.
The Shoal Lake aqueduct was a significant development of a scale indicative of the confidence of Winnipeggers in the first decade of the last century. It continues to operate today as the main source of water for the City of Winnipeg for more than 100 years.

The aqueduct is 155 kilometres long and delivers water from the Shoal Lake/Lake of the Woods watersheds to reservoirs in and around the City of Winnipeg. The elevation of the intake is approximately 90 m higher than Winnipeg (at McPhillips Reservoir) and is the driving force to move the water to the Winnipeg area. The aqueduct was built between 1914 and 1919 of concrete with a dish shaped floor and a parabolic-shell unreinforced-arch.

Our picture shows W.G. Chace, chief engineer for the Greater Winnipeg Water District, standing in the aqueduct under construction. Mr. Chace would later become president of APEM in 1928.

What is truly amazing is that as a result of system enhancements and as a result of reduced per captia water consumption rates, the aqueduct water supply will continue to serve Winnipeg for years to come and will eliminate or defer the need for future capital expansion projects.
[Tom Creighton with Leon J. Dion, Dan Mosher, Jack Mosher and Jack Hammell on the banks of The Pas River where it meets the Saskatchewan River. 1917.]
Flin Flon Copper-Zinc Discovery
Mandy Mine is the initial producer.
[The Mandy Mine, Schist Lake, 1916]
Flin Flon 1st productive copper mine by Mandy Mining Co.
Schist Lake A claim for a site 2 miles from the northwest arm of Schist Lake, 3.5 miles SE of present-day Flin Flon, is registered.

1920 - 1939

[1920 Provisional Council]
An Act respecting the Engineering Profession
The Engineering Profession Act was created and the Association established to regulate the profession of engineering in Manitoba.
On April 9, 1920, the Provisional Council convened, and W. M. Scott and G. L. Guy were elected Chairman and Secretary, respectively.

The Provisional Council, as enacted, was to provide the register called for by the Act, to enter therein the names of those entitled to registration and to call, within six months of the coming into force of the Act, the first General Meeting of the Association for those purposes or any other organization purposes of the Association.

This Provisional Council was to have the powers conferred by the Act on Council of the Association. These powers were to cease on the election of the regular Council of the Association.
[1920 Register]
Association's First Membership Application
First membership application was received on September 1, 1920.
On Monday, August 23, 1920, the Provisional Secretary was empowered to obtain and open a register for the registration of members.

The application form and certificate of registration were based on the ones used by The Association of Professional Engineers of New Brunswick, with alterations to suit the requirements of the Manitoba Act, which were adopted as official stationery of the Association.

The first membership application was received on September 1, 1920, from Gilbert Beebe McColl, a graduate of the University of Manitoba, who worked as a Dominion Land Surveyor and Civil Engineer until retirement in 1947.

[1920 First Application -  Gilbert Beebe McColl - Dominion Land Surveyor and Civil Engineer]
First General Meeting of the Association
The first General Meeting of the Association was held on September 27, 1920, in the Engineering Building of the University of Manitoba located at the corner of Portage Avenue and Sherbrook Street, in the City of Winnipeg, with the Provisional Chairman, W. M. Scott, presiding.
Seventy-one registered professional engineers and five non-registered engineers were present. The By-laws as prepared by the Provisional Council were reviewed and adopted, or amended and adopted, clause by clause.

The presiding officer then called for nominations of members for the first Council of the Association, to consist of seven members, the four receiving the highest number of votes to act until the Annual General Meeting in 1922, and the other three elected until the Annual General Meeting of 1921. In that year and subsequent alternate years, three members and in 1922 and subsequent alternate years, four members have been elected to Council for a term of two years.

In all, seventeen were nominated and upon report of the scrutineers, M. A. Lyons, P. Burke-Gaffney, G. L. Guy and J. G. LeGrand were elected to serve until 1922, and A. W. Smith, D. A. Ross and W. P. Brereton until 1921.

As had become the established custom, the members elected to Council retired from the meeting to elect, from their number, the officers of the Association. Upon their return, they reported that the first regular officers were:

M. A. Lyons, President
J. G. LeGrand, Vice-President
G. L. Guy, Secretary and Registrar

who with P. Burke-Gaffney, A. W. Smith, D. A. Ross and W. P. Brereton comprised the first Council of the Association. With the setting up of this Council, the Association began the business of administering the new act.

Note that the custom of the members of the Council retiring from the meeting to elect the officers ended in 1991. Since then the President-Elect, i.e., the person who takes over in a year, is still elected by and from the Council. However, it is done in an open meeting of the Council.
[1921 Rural Electrification]
Manitoba rural electrification
Manitoba rural electrification starts in the towns of Carman, Minnedosa, Morden, Roland, and Virden.
Relationship with the University of Manitoba
The Council authorized at the first Annual General Meeting on January 21, 1921, to appoint a Standing Committee to deal with a University of Manitoba scholarship and any other matters affecting the engineering undergraduates of the University.

The Association's support and relationship with the University of Manitoba is deeply rooted in our history.
[1921 Code of Ethics]
The Association adopts its first Code of Ethics
The Code of Ethics initially adopted November 1, 1921, revised April 6, 1935, and September 23, 1959, subsequently rewritten and adopted February 28, 1968, revised April 13, 1992, May 9, 2000, and October 19, 2018.
The Association adopted its first Code of Ethics on November 1, 1921, which was revised April 6, 1935, and September 23, 1959. It would subsequently be rewritten and adopted on February 28, 1968, and revised on April 13, 1992, May 9, 2000, and October 19, 2018.

The Code of Ethics ensures that practitioners apply their specialized knowledge and skill at all times in the public interest, with honesty, integrity and honour, and conduct themselves in a spirit of fairness and tolerance when dealing with fellow professionals.

As a general guide, the Code of Ethics outlines the spirit of Association member's professionalism. Failure to follow this code may be considered unskilled practice, professional misconduct, or both.

To learn more about the Code of Ethics and how it's changed over the years, read "Ethics - The Time Factor" of the Centennial Issue of The Keystone Professional.
[Great Falls Generating Station]
Hydroelectric expansion on the Winnipeg River
Built by Winnipeg Electric Railway Company, the hydroelectric expansion on the Winnipeg River starts with Great Falls.
The Great Falls Generating Station was built by WERCo. and opened on January 4, 1923. Located on the Winnipeg River, the generating station pioneered a number of new design features that have since become common practice in power plant development.

Today, Great Falls is Manitoba Hydro's headquarters for all four of its Winnipeg River generating stations.
[1924 Amy Street Steam Plant]
Winnipeg Amy Street Steam Plant
City Hydro's Amy Street Steam Plant goes into operation, providing electricity and steam heat to downtown Winnipeg buildings through a network of underground pipes.
[1925 Pine-Falls Paper Mill]
Pine Falls Pulp & Paper
Lumber merchant John D. McArthur forms the Manitoba Pulp and Paper Company.
[1926 Bissett Gold Mine]
San Antonio Gold Mine
Entrepreneur J.D. Perrin develops a mine at Rice Lake near Bissett.
[1927 Hudson's Bay Rail Ditching Machine]
Hudson Bay Railway Line, Port of Churchill
Hudson Bay Railway Line is completed and Port of Churchill opens.
Construction of the railway was a victory for prairie farmers in their long campaign for a rail outlet to the sea on Hudson Bay.

Begun in 1911 but suspended during the First World War, the railway construction required innovative methods of building and maintaining rail lines over muskeg and permafrost. Aside from Canadian and American workers, immigrants from Russia, Scandinavia, and Eastern and Western Europe were employed in the construction of the line. Some 3,000 labourers, living in crowded camps and enduring bitter cold and insects, used picks, shovels and wheelbarrows to build roadbed and bridges, and lay the track.

The railway provided an alternative route for exporting Prairie grain, encouraged mining and hydro-electric development, and gave travellers an unforgettable experience of Manitoba's north.

Today, the work of these railway builders is remembered and continues to serve as an enduring recognition to Manitoba's northern potential.
[1930 Western Flyer]
Bus Manufacturing
Begins with Western Auto and Truck Body Ltd. (MCI - 1930) and Fort Garry Motor Body and Paint Works Ltd. (New Flyer - 1933).
[1931 Seven Sister Generation Station]
Seven Sister Generation Station
Fondly and respectfully described by the engineers who designed and built Winnipeg River's mightiest generating station, Seven Sisters, the largest producer of electricity on the river, was completed in August 1931.
Seven Sisters was built in 2 stages. The first stage began in July 1929 and with the building of the powerhouse. In August 1931, it was completed and its 3 turbine generators produced a total of 75 megawatts. The second stage began after World War II in 1948. In 1952, the sixth and final unit went into service. It has an average annual generation of 990 million kilowatt-hours.

The Seven Sisters generating station is located on the Winnipeg River, about 70 km east of Winnipeg.
  • Capacity 165 megawatts;
  • Construction started in 1929 and completed in 1952;
  • Transmission lines: 115 kilovolts to Winnipeg;
  • 115 kV to Whiteshell area and Kenora, Ontario;
  • Powerhouse 128 metres long; Waterfall drop 18.6 metres;
  • 2 spillway gates.
[1938 Flin Flon Hill Street]
Flin Flon above-ground Water and Sewerage System
Flin Flon becomes the only city in the world to locate its water and sewage lines above ground due to its near-impenetrable bedrock in some parts of town.
[Lieutenant-Colonel Coulson Norman Mitchell, VC, MC, BCE]
World War II
Manitoba engineers join effort for World War II.

1940 - 1969

[1940 BCATP Tiger Moth Airplane]
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
Infrastructure and building construction at several sites across Canada.
[1941 W.Austin McVeigh]
Nickel discovery
Prospector Austin McVeigh discovers nickel in an outcrop at Lynn Lake.
[1949 Killberry Industries]
Killberry Industries
Agricultural machinery manufacturing begins (MacDon Industries Ltd.)
[1950 Flooded Legislative Building]
Red River Valley Flood
Manitoba, and particularly the City of Winnipeg, experiences severe flooding, later known as "Black Friday".
[1950 Flood University of Manitoba]
University of Manitoba sets a record
Record number of engineering students graduate from the University of Manitoba.
[1951 Rotary Drill Rig-up]
Virden Area Oil Discovery
Daly Field marks the beginning of Manitoba's Oil Boom.
[1953 Roselea Oil Field]
Virden discovery of Roselea Oil Field.
[1954 Bernic Lake Ore]
Tantalum-Lithium-Cesium Mine
First opened at Bernic Lake.
[1956 J.Thompson in front of Cabin]
Thompson Nickel Mining
John Thompson discovers nickel which leads to the Inco Ltd. developments, hydroelectric development at Kelsey on the Nelson River, and the building of the City of Thompson.
Following ten years of mining exploration in the region, a major ore body was discovered on February 4, 1956, and a year later Thompson was founded. Named after INCO's chairman, John F. Thompson, the new townsite was designed as a "planned community" following an agreement between the Government of Manitoba and INCO Limited.

Five year later, on March 25, 1961, INCO formally opened the first integrated nickel mining-smelting-refining plant in the Western Hemisphere in Thompson and the second largest nickel-producing operation in the world, after INCO's Sudbury operations.
[1956 Portage Office Council]
First Association Office
The Association begins renting office space at 418 - 265 Portage Ave. (Avenue Building).
First Honorary Life Member
In February of 1956, the Association's first president M.A. Lyons, was honored in Toronto when he was made the first honorary life member of the Manitoba Association of Professional Engineers.
M.A. Lyons was honored again when a boardroom was named after him during a ribbon-cutting ceremony for the expansion to the second floor of the Association office at 870 Pembina Hwy. on February 23, 2018.
[1956 First Edition of the Manitoba Professional Engineer]
First The Manitoba Professional Engineer Published
The very first The Manitoba Professional Engineer was published in July of 1956. In this issue, it was noted that "The success of this venture depends on the interest and assitance offered by members of the Association."
The Manitoba Professional Engineer would continue to be published bi-monthly until February 1999 with a name change to The Bulletin between October 1976 and December 1985.

In June of 1999, our current publication The Keystone Professional would launch it's first issue.

After 64 years of continuous publication, we'd have to agree that there is in fact been interest from our members as well as hundreds of hours voluntereed by our committee members to make our publications a success.
Manitoba Government Announces Pay Hike for Engineers
In January of 1957, the Manitoba government announced a pay hike to ease the shortage of engineers in the province.
Salary schedules were under revision in a move to hold present engineering staff and to attract others to fill posts in the highways branch that had been vacant for many months.

According to the article in The Winnipeg Tribune from January 26, 1957, the starting rate offered by the provincial government to young engineers without experience in the civic service ranged from $3,840 to $4,200 per year.

A recruiting effort was also underway in Britain to get engineers to come to Manitoba.

Our province and Association have a long history of welcoming engineers from around the world.
[1958 Brandon Generating Station]
Brandon Coal Generating Station
Manitoba Hydro first commissions the site to burn lignite coal from Saskatchewan. Replacement natural gas units were installed in 2002 and the last coal was burned in 2018.
[1960 Red River Floodway]
Manitoba Flood Protection System
Government of Manitoba launches a comprehensive engineering project to protect its inhabitants.
It was almost 60 years ago that on October 6, 1962, that then Premier of Manitoba Duff Roblin and federal Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources Walter Dinsdale climbed atop of a giant bulldozer and stripped the first sod off the prairie to begin construction of the Red River Floodway. At a cost of 63-million dollars, the Red River Floodway would officially open on October 11, 1968.

It took years of investigation, negotiation, planning, and designing before the six-year construction period began. The Floodway represents millions of man-hours on the drawing boards, at planning discussions, and at financial negotiations. At the peak of construction itself, in July of 1965, there were 1,000 men working on the project, a project 30 percent greater in earth-moving magnitude than the Canadian section of the St. Lawrence Seaway, and 40 percent as great as the Panama Canal.

At 47 km long, the Floodway has prevented over $40 billion in cumulative flood damage. For its outstanding engineering achievement both in terms of function and impact, the Floodway was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 2000.
[1960 Monte Raber]
Bio Medical Engineering starts
Local development of the first modular system of lower extremity prosthetics.
Awards Committee Initiated
The Association set up an Awards Committee to give recognition to outstanding engineers.
The earliest known recognition award handed out was in 1963 to A.E. MacDonald, the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering.

Since then the Association has regularly handed out awards to recognize outstanding achievements to Manitoba's most worthy engineers and geoscientists for their contributions to our professions and society.

Over the years, our awards have expanded to eight categories!
[1961 Black Brant Sounding Rocket]
Black Brant Rocket
Canadian-designed sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg, Manitoba is used in Canada's Eclipse Mission and becomes the rocket of choice by NASA and others.
Black Brant rockets are "classics" and still soar into the skies nearly six decades after the first test launch at the Churchill rocket range in September 1959.

Black Brant development initially started through the Canadian Forces and the government, with the National Research Council and the Department of National Defence doing research on matters such as exploring the upper atmosphere, probing the origin of auroras, and developing rocket technology.

Originally built by Bristol, Magellan Aerospace's Winnipeg division is a pioneer in Canada's space industry and has been designing and manufacturing Black Brant sounding rockets for almost 60 years with the first launch taking place on June 15, 1962 at the National Air and Space Administration's (NASA) Wallops Island Test Range on the coast of Virginia.

The Black Brant is a solid propellant rocket system available in single or multistage configurations and is one of the most successful sounding rockets ever built. Black Brant rockets carry instrumentation into suborbital flight to take measurements and perform scientific experiments. To date, more than 1,000 Black Brant rockets have been launched from every continent other than Antarctica.

A sounding rocket named after the Canada Goose species.
[1962 Grosvenor House Pre-Cast Concrete]
Grosvenor House
Grosvenor House early pre-cast concrete building construction in Manitoba.
When the Grosvenor House Apartment Building was built in 1960, it was the tallest all-precast concrete building in Canada. Located at 811 Grosvenor Avenue in Winnipeg, Grosvenor House is an eight-story apartment building with a precast concrete frame and floor system.

Grosvenor House was originally designed as cast-in-place concrete. In 1960, the precast concrete industry was emerging in Manitoba. The City of Winnipeg building permitting authority had just accepted precast concrete as a building system, and an alternate to the original cast-in-place design. An alternate design was prepared in precast, with assistance from engineer Laurence Cazaly. The innovation of the project highlighted the versatility, economy, use of local products, and potential of precast concrete for the building industry of Manitoba at a time when development was vital to the province.

Over the years, acceptance of precast prestressed concrete was higher per capita in Winnipeg than anywhere in Canada. Today, precast buildings in Canada have now topped over 50 floors such as La Tour des Canadiens in Montreal.
[1963 Whiteshell Labs]
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) nuclear research
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) nuclear research started in Pinawa.
In the late 1950s, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was planning an aggressive expansion of their experimental reactor designs and their existing research site, Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) outside of Ottawa was nearing the saturation point and too small for expansion. A quick survey indicated that three provinces were lacking federal research facilities: Newfoundland, Alberta, and Manitoba. Newfoundland, it was felt was not an option at the time, having joined Canada less than ten years previously in 1949. Alberta had no need of atomic energy, blessed as it was with abundant oil and gas. So, it would be Manitoba.

In November 1959, then AECL president J.L. Gray reported to the AECL board that a site on the Winnipeg River near the Seven Sisters Generating Station appeared to be suitable, along with a report from the federal government's housing agency that a new town site could be developed nearby.

The agreement was approved by Cabinet on July 21, 1960 and the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE; later renamed Whiteshell Laboratories) was born. A design would be ready for the start of the construction season in April 1962.

Whiteshell Laboratories was Canada's second nuclear science research and development laboratory and the first facility of its kind in western Canada. In 1963, it was established as a research laboratory, with a focus on the largest organically cooled, heavy water moderated nuclear reactor in the world, the WR-1.

In 1998, AECL decided to close Whiteshell Laboratories. In of 2017, many of the original facilities were shut down, but work on WR-1 was ongoing. Today, the site is being decommissioned by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories with a view to protecting the environment. The site is planned to be entirely decommissioned by 2027.

Through its years of operation, the people of the Whiteshell Laboratories made significant contributions to the science and engineering knowledge of Canada's nuclear industry.
[1965 Grand Rapids Generating Station]
Grand Rapids Hydroelectric Generating Station
First of four large Kaplan turbines begins operation.
[1965 Versatile Tractors]
Agriculture manufacturing in the province expands
Versatile becomes the first in North America to mass produce articulated four-wheel drive tractors.
[1965 Logging Bunk House]
Last Log Drive on the Winnipeg River
When cutting progressed well past the river systems, ice roads became more economical.
May 1965 saw the last log drive on the Winnipeg River. These log drives, held annually for 25 years, were often 31 miles long, taking 10 days to complete and requiring the help of waters stored on Cat Lake and Bear Lake to push the logs down the Bear River to the Pine Falls Mill. By the mid-60s, cutting had progressed well past the river systems and ice roads were now more economical for transporting winter stockpiles of logs via tractor trains and trucks to the mill.

The presence of a pulp mill in Manitoba created winter employment for thousands of Manitobans. Pulpwood was cut all over Manitoba and shipped to the Pine Falls plant. In The Pas area, independent lumbering companies sold their pulp to Pine Falls until 1967, when the Churchill Forest Industries plant opened in the region. To settlers on marginal land, the pulp industry offered an opportunity to supplement their meager earnings from their farms. In the 1930s, a good pulpwood cutter, using an axe and a narrow blade Swede saw, could cut two and one-half cords per day, as well as pile the brush from the trees for burning. His pay was $2.25 per cord and he was charged $1.00 for his board in the camp.

In the 90 years of its existence, the Pine Falls Mill was a great boon to the economy of Manitoba, like all resource-based industry towns it suffered with the impact of the economy on the need for its products. However, John Duncan McArthur deserves credit for ignoring the advice of the Provincial Forestry department in the 1920s and forging ahead with a paper mill.
[1966 Kettle Generating Station]
Hydroelectric Expansion on Lower Nelson River
Hydroelectric expansion begins with Kettle Rapids followed by Long Spruce and Limestone.
[1967 Admissions Review Board]
Admissions Review Board
The establishment of an Admissions Review Board as a result of a recommendation to Council by the Board of Examiners, which evolved into the Experience Review Committee in 1994.
[1967 New Office at 177 Lombard]
Office Move
Association office moves to 710 - 177 Lombard, a shared office space with the Association of Architects in the Chamber of Commerce Building.
[1968 Centennial Concert Hall]
Manitoba Centennial Concert Hall
Manitoba Centennial Concert Hall opens.
[1968 Red River Flood Way Opens]
Winnipeg Red River Floodway
Winnipeg Red River Floodway is completed.
In March of 1959, then-Premier Duff Roblin told the Manitoba Legislature the government was prepared to build a 30-mile-long floodway around Winnipeg as soon as the necessary engineering and construction plans could be completed.

The federal and Manitoba governments reached agreement on how this huge project should be financed. The federal government provided 58.5% of the 63.2-million-dollar cost.

Overall planning, design, and supervision of construction was carried out by the Water Control and Conservation Branch of the Manitoba government working with the Advisory Floodway Board.

On October 6, 1962, the big construction job was started. At the time, excavation of the floodway channel was the second largest earth moving project in the world (second only to the Panama Canal and larger than the Suez Canal project). The floodway was finished on schedule in March of 1968. Since it's opening, the floodway has prevented tens of billions of dollars in flood damage for Winnipeg.

As signs of spring are upon us and the winter snow begins to melt, we are grateful to then-Premier Roblin, who spearheaded the development of the Red River floodway (a.k.a. Duff's Ditch), one of the most significant flood protection measures in Manitoba which protects the City of Winnipeg.

On October 6, 1962, then Premier of Manitoba Duff Roblin and federal Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources Walter Dinsdale climbed atop of a giant bulldozer and stripped the first sod off the prairie to begin construction of the Red River Floodway. At a cost of 63-million dollars, the Red River Floodway would officially open on October 11, 1968.

It took years of investigation, negotiation, planning, and designing before the six-year construction period began. The Floodway represents millions of man-hours on the drawing boards, at planning discussions, and at financial negotiations. At the peak of construction itself, in July of 1965, there were 1,000 men working on the project, a project 30 percent greater in earth-moving magnitude than the Canadian section of the St. Lawrence Seaway, and 40 percent as great as the Panama Canal.

At 47 km long, the Floodway has prevented over $40 billion in cumulative flood damage. For its outstanding engineering achievement both in terms of function and impact, the Floodway was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 2000.
[1969 Judith Weiszmann]
Female Engineers Getting Registered
Judith Weiszmann, P.Eng, FEC was one of the first female engineers registered to practice in the Province of Manitoba.
In April of 1969, Judith Weiszmann, P.Eng, FEC was one of the first female engineers registered to practice in the Province of Manitoba. She graduated with a diploma in Structural Engineering from the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary on March 25, 1954.

Despite significant barriers and skepticism near the beginning of her career, Judith eventually overcame all of them and went on to pioneer a successful 40-year long career as a structural engineer in a male dominated profession, paving the professional path for other women in the engineering profession. In the process she completed over 450 projects involving industrial, commercial, municipal, and residential buildings.

When she received the Association's Award of Merit in 1995, Judith was the only woman principal in a major Winnipeg engineering firm. In 2016, Engineers Geoscientists Manitoba introduced the Judith Weiszmann Women in Engineering Champion Award in her honour. The award is intended to recognize a woman who through engineering and career achievements has demonstrated the qualities that enabled Judith Weiszmann to be an outstanding engineer, role model, and influencer of the profession for the advancement and support of women in engineering.

Judith passed away in 2014 at the age of 84.

1970 - 1999

[1970 Practice and Ethics Committee]
Practice and Ethics Committee
The beginnings and operation of the Practice and Ethics Committee, which evolved into the Investigation Committee in 1992.
[1972 Nelson River HVDC Transmission Line]
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)
Manitoba Hydro commissions Bipole I, the first HVdc transmission line from the Radisson Converter Station near Gillam to the Dorsey Converter Station, just west of Winnipeg.
[1972 Shellmouth Dam]
Shellmouth Dam
Construction on the Lake of the Prairies, located 19 km north of Russell is completed. The earth-filled structure with a concrete spillway provides flood protection and low-flow augmentation to downstream areas including Brandon, Portage la Prairie, and Winnipeg.
[1975 Manitoba Professional Engineer Cover]
Salary Guidelines Developed
The development of Salary Guidelines, to assist employers to establish equitable salaries when hiring Professional Engineers, and to assist engineering graduates to know what level of salaries to expect when seeking employment.
[1976 Churchill River Diversion]
Churchill River Diversion and Lake Winnipeg Regulation
The Churchill River Diversion is commissioned to increase the water flow to Manitoba Hydro's large generating stations on the lower Nelson River.
[1978 Churchill Transmission Line]
Bipole II Transmission Line
Bipole II Transmission Line is commissioned.
[1980 Winnipeg to Minneapolis Transmission Line]
Winnipeg to Minneapolis Transmission Line
500kV Transmission Line completed.
[1980 Office Move 175 Hargrave]
Office Move
Friday, September 12, 1980, the Association moves it's offices into the York Centre, 640 - 175 Hargrave.
[1981 Canadarm Wardrop]
Wardrop Engineering contributes to the design of components of the Canadarm device that is deployed.
[1981 Minnedosa Ethanol Plant]
Minnedosa Ethanol Plant
Minnedosa Ethanol Plant comes on stream to produce 10 million litres of ethanol annually.
[1983 Royal Trust Building]
Office Move
Association office relocates to the Royal Trust Building, 530 - 333 St. Mary Avenue.
[1989 Rothera Airstrip]
Airstrip for British Antarctic Survey
I.D. Group Inc. (since taken over by Stantec) designs and monitors the construction of an airstrip for the British Antarctic Survey at Rothera in the Antarctic.
[1990 Assiniboine Walkway]
Assiniboine River Walk
I.D. Engineering, Dillon Engineering, and KGS Group were involved in various aspects of the walkway over the years.
[1990 Inland Grain Slip-Form Technique]
Inland Grain Terminals Construction
FWS Group apply slip-form technique for construction.
[1993 Thompson Chapter]
Thompson Chapter
The Thompson Chapter becomes the first Association chapter.
Renamed in May 2018, the Northern Manitoba Chapter was formally known as the Thompson Chapter, which was the Association's first chapter, constituted in September of 1993.

Over one hundred of our practitioners live and/or work north of the 53rd parallel in Manitoba.

The chapter's objectives are to encourage and facilitate the study, discussion and exchange of ideas and information among the members on all questions of interest as engineers, geoscientists, and citizens.
[1993 Westman Chapter]
Westman Chapter Established
Created to focus on the practice of engineering and geoscience by members living and/or working within the Westman region.
[1993 Habitat For Humanity Build]
First Habitat for Humanity Work Project
International Jimmy & Rosalynn Carter Habitat for Humanity
Over the past 100 years, thousands of volunteers have worked tirelessly on committees and events in our mostly volunteer run association, which is the reality of participating in a self-regulated profession. As practitioners, volunteer service is a requirement to be eligible for professional registration however, many of our practitioners have always gone above and beyond what is required

In the summer of 1993, many Manitobans became familiar with Habitat for Humanity when former US President Jimmy Carter came to Winnipeg to support the building of 19 homes for low income families to own. Our Association members were among the seven hundred volunteers who picked up hammers and saws for the official launch of the Habitat for Humanity project in Winnipeg. This is just one of the many events where our volunteers have given their time to make life work better in Manitoba.
[1995 End of Crow Rate]
End of the 'Crow Rate'
Spurs revitalization of the grain storage, handling, and transportation systems in Western Canada.
[1995 End of Diesel Generators in Churchill]
Churchill Transmission Line
This transmission line from Gillam to Churchill allows the retirement of large-diesel generators in the town of Churchill, reducing power costs and increasing supply.
First Spaghetti Bridge Competition
Since 1995, the Spaghetti Bridge Competition has attracted thousands of students around the province to put their engineering skills to the test.
Between 2010 and 2020, the Association has donated thousands of dollars to Winnipeg Harvest to offset the loss of edible spaghetti - a total of $207,353.

Because of Winnipeg Harvest's buying power with other suppliers, this financial donation translates to 3.5 million pounds of food for families in Manitoba in the last decade.
[1996 850A Pembina Office Sign]
Office Move
Association office moves to 850A Pembina Highway.
[1997 Morris Ring Dike]
1997 Flood
1997 Flood results in improved forecasting and operation modelling.
In early May of 1997, Manitobans were recovering from the Flood of the Century, the most severe flood since 1826. Occurring in April and May, the Red River flood reached throughout the Red River Valley, affecting the cities of Winnipeg, Fargo, and Grand Forks. Total damages for the Red River region were US$3.5 billion. In Manitoba, it caused 28,000 people to be evacuated and $500 million in damage to property and infrastructure.

On May 1, the Red River would crest at 24.5'. At the flood's peak in Canada on May 4, the Red River occupied an area of 1,840 km2 with more than 2,560 km2 of land underwater, which earned it the nickname "Red Sea".

By May 7, the City of Winnipeg allowed over 9,000 residents, representing 3,000 homes, to return home and sandbag production ended.

Every spring, Manitobans brace for the flood season; levels are monitored and we hope that the Red River Floodway will be divert the water away from Winnipeg.
[May 4, 1997 - Devastating Disasters Blog]
[1998 Taylor 'Smart' Bridge]
Taylor 'Smart' Bridge, Headingley
The two-lane, 165-metre-long Taylor Bridge in Headingley opens and advanced structural health monitoring systems are introduced.
[1998 APEGM]
Geoscientific Profession
Geoscientists join the Association.
On June 28, 1998, The Engineering and Geoscientific Professions Act assented in the Manitoba legislature and geoscientists join the Association.

Read more about the transition from APEM to APEGM in the President's Message from the August 1998 The Manitoba Professional Engineer.
[1999 First Keystone Professional]
The Keystone Professional
The first Keystone Professional magazine was released.
Since then, our committee of volunteers has supported the Association in publishing over forty issues. Do you know why the name was changed and where it came from? Once The Engineering and Geoscientific Professions Act passed in the Manitoba legislature in June 1998 and the Association began administering the professional registration of geoscientists as well as engineers, changing its name to the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Manitoba, the title of The Manitoba Professional Engineer for our publication would no longer do.

A new name was indeed needed. Suggestions were sought from the membership. As it turned out, two members - Harold Larsen, P.Eng. and Brian Stimpson, P.Eng. - suggested the name "Keystone", finally adopted as The Keystone Professional by then-Executive Director and Registrar, Dave Ennis, P.Eng.

The name has geographical (of the "The Keystone Province"), engineering (the keystone being the stone at the apex of an arch, the design element upon which that whole civil structure depends), geoscientific (of stone), and professional symbolism. That name packs a punch! Perhaps it is unsurprising that Mr. Larsen and Dr. Stimpson were both geological engineers, each having a foot in both worlds.

2000 - 2020

[2000 MHI HVDC Research Centre]
Power System Management Technology
Manitoba HVDC Research Centre begins commercialization of the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS®).
[2002 Golden Boy Restoration]
Golden Boy Restoration
Restoration completed by Dillon Engineering
On September 5, 2002, the Golden Boy was re-installed on the Legislative Building dome after a seven-month repair which cost approximately $1.0 million. The project, which earned Dillon Consulting an Award of Excellence from Canadian Consulting Engineer, was an extremely challenging project involving more than 10 sub-consultants and test labs, and 10 contractors.

The Golden Boy was in place for the official opening of the Legislative Building in 1920. Except for the seven months in 2002, when workers lowered the Golden Boy from the dome for repair and refurbishing, he has stood proud as a symbol for all Manitobans.
[2003 SciSat-1]
Magellan Aerospace (formerly Bristol Aerospace) launch small science satellite buses.
[2003 New Flyer Xcelsior]
Hybrid Bus Deployment
New Flyer Industries develops and deploys hybrid buses for local transit.
[2003 Esplanade Riel Bridge]
Esplanade Riel Bridge
Named in honour of Louis Riel, the side-spar cable-stayed bridge, designed by Architects Guy Préfontaine, Étienne Gaboury, and Colin Douglas Stewart, P.Eng. of Wardrop Engineering, opens.
On New Year's Eve of 2003, Esplanade Riel, Winnipeg's new pedestrian bridge, opened to foot traffic. The pedestrian bridge was part of the $72 million, Provencher Twin Bridges project, which included a new four-lane divided vehicular bridge as well as new roadways and sidewalks. Beginning in 1998, The City of Winnipeg, Wardrop Engineering Inc., and community stakeholders partnered in a comprehensive public consultation process that considered repair/replace alternatives for the ageing Provencher Bridge, circa 1916.

Guiding the process were requirements that the new vision for the bridge be: technically sound; cost-effective; environmentally responsible; reflect the needs of the adjacent communities and the city at large, and be understood and accepted by most of those affected.

Detailed design of the Esplanade Riel began early in 2002 and construction commenced in the fall of 2002. Working together with the contractor, the City and Wardrop overcame significant challenges during construction to ensure the project was completed on schedule in the fall of 2003.

A world-class addition to Winnipeg's skyline, Esplanade Riel re-established the alignment of the city's historic grand boulevard - Provencher on the east and Broadway on the west. The city's new landmark is a demonstration of world-class engineering performed by Manitoba-trained engineers and is a tribute to the quality of the education and professionalism of all the engineers involved.
[2004 Act Change]
Association's role further defined
Inclusion of "the purposes of the association are to...advocate where the public interest is at risk" in the Engineering and Geoscientific Professions Act.
[2005 Floodway Expansion]
Winnipeg Red River Floodway expansion
Construction begins on all works required to provide protection to the City of Winnipeg from a 1 in 700 year flood.
[2007 EITC at UofM]
University of Manitoba Faculty of Engineering
Faculty of Engineering celebrates 100 years and the opening of the new APEGM Design Studio, "Room 229" in the Engineering and Information Technology Complex at the University of Manitoba.
[2007 Lalor Mine]
Lalor Mine
Discovery of gold and zinc is made in the Snow Lake area.
It was an exciting day in March 2007 when crews hit the mother lode at the Lalor site. The Lalor crew had intersected zinc - an immense amount of zinc that generated interest at the highest levels of Hudbay.

The key to the Lalor discovery had been a type of prospecting known as remote sensing. In a 2012 article, the Globe and Mail's Paul Brent noted this technique lets prospectors "find deposits at increasing depths without physically drilling into the earth but rather by measuring underground electromagnetic properties either from the ground or from the air."

Hudbay had "used a combination of high-powered transmit loops and extremely long remote sensing periods to peer deep into the earth" to first identify the deposit, Brent wrote.

As Alan Vowles, then the principal geophysicist for Hudbay's exploration department, told Brent, "We were able to image the ore body where we wouldn't have been able to with previous technologies."

After the discovery hole of March 2007, optimism around Lalor continued to swell.- Not only was the deposit rich in zinc, geologists learned, but it also contained a vast volume of gold - enough to support a mine on its own - along with copper and silver.

Indeed Lalor had become one of the most significant discoveries ever made in the Flin Flon-Greenstone Belt - and considering the region's fabled mining history, that was saying something.

On the morning of October 8, 2009, Hudbay executives countered a gloomy recession-era mining atmosphere in spectacular fashion by approving $85 million to begin development of the Lalor mine.
[2008 MB Hydro Building]
Manitoba Hydro Downtown Office Tower
The city sees its first "green" high-rise building.
In December 2008, Manitoba Hydro Place (MPH) would welcome its first employees. Located in Winnipeg and officially opened in September 2009, it was the first LEED Platinum office tower in Canada and among the most efficient office towers in North America.

By using an integrated design process, building energy use was minimized for Manitoba's climate. Consuming 88 kWh/m2, Manitoba Hydro Place uses 60% less energy than the Model National Energy Code for Buildings and 73% less energy than the standard office tower in Winnipeg.

MHP houses two thousand employees on 21 floors. Unique attributes of this building include North America's largest solar chimney providing 100% fresh air at all times, Manitoba's largest geothermal heating and cooling system, and the world's first "reversed" double façade optimized for a cold climate.
870 Pembina]
Office Move
Association office moves next door to 870 Pembina Highway.
[Canadian Museum for Human Rights]
Canadian Museum for Human Rights
Canadian Museum for Human Rights construction begins, with a grand opening in 2014.
When the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) opened in September 2014, it was the first museum in the world solely dedicated to the evolution, celebration, and future of human rights. The Museum has received national and international recognition across many fields of activity, including accessible and inclusive design, architecture, communications, construction, cultural leadership, education, and financial management.

In 2000, Israel Asper began to imagine a world-class human rights centre for Canada. A few short years later, in April 2003, plans for the Canadian Museum for Human Rights were announced by Asper and his supporters.

On December 19, 2008, a ground-breaking ceremony was held at The Forks, followed by the beginning of construction in April 2009. In September 2012, the last of 1,669 custom-cut pieces of glass is installed and work on the base building is completed a few months later.
Winnipeg Water Treatment Plant
After four years of construction and at a cost of about $300 million, the Winnipeg Water Treatment Plant began sending treated water to the city on the evening of December 9, 2009.
Located at the Deacon Reservoir, the plant is a state-of-the-art, modern facility designed for performance, safety, and environmental sustainability which is expected to last about 75 years with normal upkeep and maintenance.

The Winnipeg Water and Waste Department provided an insert with the March 2010 water and sewer bill "Announcing our best tap water ever! Winnipeg's new water treatment plant started up on December 9, 2009. The treatment facility is 12,000 sq. m in size (about the footprint of the MTS Centre). The water passes through six treatment stages, including filtration, ozonation, and two types of disinfection."

Since the treatment plant began operating, Winnipeg's drinking water is of a higher quality than the drinking water guidelines set out by Health Canada, is clearer, and smells and tastes better all year.
[2011 Airport Terminal]
James A Richardson Airport Terminal
First airport terminal in Canada to be LEED-Certified.
When it first opened its doors to welcome travellers on October 30, 2011, the Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport was Canada's newest and greenest airport.

Winnipeg's main airport terminal was designed by Argentine architect Cesar Pelli and Stantec. The terminal's design was inspired by the City of Winnipeg's distinctive landscape and the province of Manitoba's vast prairies and sky. It was the first airport terminal in Canada to be LEED-certified for its environmentally friendly concept, design, construction and operation. The terminal was constructed in two phases, with construction beginning in 2007 at a cost of $585-million.

On October 31, 2011, the Winnipeg Airports Authority was honoured as a recipient of the 2011 Airports Going Green award. This prestigious award, handed out by the Chicago Department of Aviation (CDA), recognizes the value of each project, as well as the project sponsors' outstanding leadership in pursuit of sustainability within the aviation industry.
[2011 Filipino Chapter]
Filipino Members Chapter
Filipino Members Chapter starts.
[2012 Ingenium Conference]
Ingenium beginnings
Association holds it first Ingenium Conference.
[2012 Southwest Transitway]
Southwest Transitway
First phase of the Winnipeg bus rapid transit Southwest Transitway commences operation.
The Southwest Transitway, Winnipeg's bus rapid transit dedicated roadway commenced operation on April 8, 2012. The first section was constructed parallel to the railway tracks running southwest from Queen Elizabeth Way at The Forks to Pembina Highway at Jubilee Avenue.

Starting April 12, 2020, BLUE, the city's 11-kilometre Southwest Transitway, will provide frequent, reliable, high-speed service from downtown to the neighbourhoods of southwest Winnipeg, including the University of Manitoba and St. Norbert.
Chinese Members Chapter
Chinese Members Chapter starts.
CASSIOPE on the SpaceX Falcon 9
Catching a ride on the first flight.
Cascade, Smallsat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE), is a Canadian Space Agency (CSA) multi-mission satellite operated by the University of Calgary. The mission development and operations from launch to February 2018 was funded through CSA and the Technology Partnerships Canada program.

CASSIOPE was launched on September 29, 2013, on the first flight of the SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 launch vehicle. It was the first Canadian hybrid satellite to carry a dual mission in the fields of telecommunications and scientific research. The main objectives were to gather information to better understand the science of space weather, while verifying high-speed communications concepts through the use of advanced space technologies.

Magellan Aerospace Winnipeg was contracted in 2005 to build the MAC-200 bus for CASSIOPE (previously Magellan Aerospace Corporation had built the MAC-100 bus for the SCISAT-1 satellite mission). The MAC-200 is a generic satellite bus intended to be used for multiple SmallSat missions.

The bus is responsible for powering the spacecraft, thermal management, attitude determination and control, and communications with the ground via S-band. Magellan designed and built the Command and Data Handling units (C&DH) for the bus, which are the onboard primary and redundant computers that run the bus flight software. Magellan also helped develop the GAP instrument in the ePOP payload, as well as the deployable ePOP antenna booms.
[2013 NeuroBlate System]
NeuroBlate System
Health Canada approves NeuroBlate System for commercialization.
[2014 Diamond Discovery]
Diamond discovery
Diamonds are discovered for the first time in Manitoba near Knee Lake and Oxford House.
Association gets a new name
Association adopts the working name Engineers Geoscientists Manitoba and updates logo.
After changing the Association acronym from APEM to APEGM when the geoscientists joined the Association in 1998, there was an increasing realization that the combination of letters was not meaningful to the public and it did not convey what the Association was about.

By September 2015, the Association resolved its own identity crisis by adopting Engineers Geoscientists Manitoba as its working name. Since the original logo incorporated the old acronym, a change of logo occurred as well.

The new logo presents strong bolded lines representing the letters E and G, the two first letters of the professions the Association represents. The lines appear bar-like, with the initial three reaching out horizontally, placed one above the other like building blocks, each an example of a bar set and raised.

As we celebrate our Centennial year, let's proudly use Engineers Geoscientists Manitoba so the public is clear who our Association represents.
Indian Members Chapter
India Members Chapter starts.
[2016 An Engineer Was Here...]
Public Awareness Campaign
First Association major public awareness campaign is launched.
In November 2016, Engineers Geoscientists Manitoba launched its first major public awareness campaign with a series of television, radio and movie theatre commercials, billboard, bus and transit shelter advertisements, print ads and social media content all designed to position professional engineering and geoscience as vibrant, diverse, rewarding, ethical, and equitable careers.

The campaign was designed and developed to help the public quickly grasp the incredible multitude of things that have been made smarter, safer, healthier, and better in their environment because a professional engineer or geoscientist was there.

The work to build this public awareness campaign got underway well in advance of its launch in 2016 when the Association updated its name to Engineers Geoscientists Manitoba to make it easier to recall and more relevant.
Arab Members Chapter
Arab Members Chapter starts.
[2018 Bipole III Transmission Line]
Bipole III Transmission Line
Bipole III Transmission Line is commissioned.
[2018 Indigenous Members Chapter]
Indigenous Members Chapter
Indigenous Members Chapter starts.
[Wardrop Boardroom]
Association expansion
Office space expands to the second floor at the 870 Pembina Highway location.
[2019 Freedom Road]
Freedom Road
Freedom Road is completed, giving access to Shoal Lake 40 First Nation.
Ethio-Eritrean Members Chapter
Ethio-Eritrean Members Chapter starts.
Pakistan Members Chapter
Pakistan Members Chapter starts.
Nigeria Members Chapter
Nigeria Members Chapter starts.
[2020 Centennial]
Centennial Celebrations
The Association celebrates 100 Years!

Did we miss a significant engineering or geoscience milestone from the last century? Contact us at Info@EngGeoMB.ca to let us know.